Wednesday

Appointment Calendar

Appointment Calendar  

Related T-Codes :


SSCA - Maintain substitute 
SSC1 - Owner 
SSC0 - Employee 

The appointment calendar allows you to organize your appointments and to find out about the appointments of other employees. Appointments are managed centrally and can be taken into consideration when other appointments are planned in your company.

The appointment calendar is integrated in various SAP applications, for example, processing of sales orders or working with activities in Customer Relationship Management. The appointment calendar is also available as an independent application. Appointment maintenance is not application-specific. This means that appointments that you created for sales orders are also displayed in your activities view and vice versa.

Features

The appointment calendar supports you in your appointment planning with the following functions:
  • You can switch between a daily, weekly, or monthly view when displaying your appointments.
  • You can work with individual appointments, group appointments, and periodic appointments. You can create a detailed description for each appointment.
  • A search function supports you when searching for times without appointments for several users. External appointment data published on a Web server can also be considered in the search.
  • Appointments can block or reserve a time period or they can leave it free. Appointments that leave a time period free are not considered as appointments in the search for free times.
  • All employees involved in a group appointment are notified automatically when the appointment is created or changed. This is also the case for external participants. The appointment can then be entered automatically in the relevant SAP calendars or external calendars, provided these support the iCalendar standard. The group appointment is also updated automatically when responses, such as accepted or declined, are received.
  • A substitute concept enables each user to assign authorizations to other employees for displaying and maintaining their appointments.
  • Various time-zone functions support you when planning appointments in different time zones.
Working with the Appointment Calendar

Calling the Appointment Calendar

To call your calendar, choose Workplace → Appointment Calendar (transaction SSC1). 

Displaying and Maintaining Appointments

Whilst an appointment calendar is being processed, it remains open for display and maintenance by other users. This ensures at all times that the appointments of all users can be considered when appointments are being planned within your company. Whilst an appointment is being changed by a user, other users can only display the appointment. Choose to see the appointment changes that were made by other users whilst you were displaying an appointment calendar.

After you have called a calendar, you go to change mode if it is your own calendar or a calendar that you are authorized to maintain. You go to display mode in all other calendars. For more information, see Displaying and Maintaining Appointments.

In addition to appointments maintained in the SAP system, appointments that have been maintained and then published in other calendars are also displayed. Only time-related information is displayed for these appointments. 

Calendar Integration

Calendar integration enables you to connect calendars from third party manufacturers to the SAP system. As a result, appointments that users in another electronic calendar (calendar client) have maintained can be synchronized with SAP appointments. The advantages of a central address management and of integrating the SAP calendar into SAP applications are connected with the functions of the chosen calendar client. For example, users can work offline with a calendar client such as Microsoft Outlook.

Outlook calendar integration provides a calendar integration that enables the Microsoft Outlook calendar to be connected to the SAP system.

Soruce :http://help.sap.com/saphelp_erp60_sp/helpdata/en/88/7a67375278d579e10000009b38f8cf/content.htm?frameset=/en/01/d5520f4ab311d189740000e8322d00/frameset.htm&current_toc=/en/01/d554cc4ab311d189740000e8322d00/plain.htm&node_id=32&show_children=false

ABAP Webdynpro

ABAP Webdynpro 

Web Dynpro for ABAP (WD4A, WDA) is the SAP standard UI technology for developing Web
applications in the ABAP environment. It consists of a runtime environment and a graphical
development environment with special Web Dynpro tools that are integrated in the ABAP
Workbench (SE80).
Web Dynpro offers the following advantages for application developers:
● The use of declarative and graphical tools significantly reduces the implementation
effort
● Web Dynpro supports a structured design process
● Strict separation between layout and business data
● Reuse and better maintainability by using components
● The layout and navigation is easily changed using the Web Dynpro tools
● Stateful applications are supported – that is, if the page is changed and the required
data remains intact so that you can access it at any time throughout the entire
application context.
Note that stateless applications are not possible.
● Automatic data transport using data binding
● Automatic input check
● Automatic operation of the Web Dynpro application using the keyboard
● User interface accessibility is supported

● Full integration in the reliable ABAP development environment

In Web Dynpro ABAP it is imperative that a client browser with a fully qualified domain name
(FQDN) has access to the AS-ABAP. For this reason the full URL must be assigned to a Web
Dynpro ABAP application when it is called. The URL must not be shortened (for instance, no
domain specification).

FQDN is necessary for the following reasons:
● One domain is required with which cookies can be set domain-wide, for instance,
SSO2 cookies.
Domain relaxation code is required for cross-frame JavaScript.
This is particularly important for Portal Integration

Web Dynpro is the SAP NetWeaver programming model for user interfaces (UIs).
The Web Dynpro model is based on the Model View Controller paradigm, and has the
following features that build on the classic dynpro model:
● Clear separation of business logic and display logic
● Uniform metamodel for all types of user interfaces
● Execution on a number of client platforms.
● Extensive platform independence of interfaces
Web Dynpro is available both in the Java and the ABAP development environment. Platformspecific
information is available under:

Web Dynpro provides support for developing Web representation of a business application.
You use specific tools to describe the properties of a Web Dynpro application in the form of
Web Dynpro metadata. The necessary source code is then generated automatically and
executed at runtime. In addition to the events offered by the framework, you can also define
your own events for a Web Dynpro application. However, the event handling must always be
programmed in separate source code areas which are executed automatically when the event
is triggered at runtime.

In Web Dynpro, each user interface is always made up of the same basic elements. These
elements of the metamodel can be statically declared using Web Dynpro tools.
It is also possible to implement elements of the metamodel at runtime and to change them or
reintegrate them at runtime. Using these implementations, you can make any changes or
enhancements to a user interface that has been created by declarative methods by
generating new interface structures at runtime.

Conversion of the Model-View-Controller Programming Model
Every Web Dynpro application is structured according to the Model View Controller
programming model:
● The model forms the interface to the back end system and thus enables the
Web Dynpro application access to data.
● The view  is responsible for the representation of the data in the browser.
● The controller  lies between the view and the model. The controller formats
the model data to be displayed in the view, processes the user entries made by the
user, and returns them to the model.

Web Dynpro Component

A Web Dynpro component is a reusable entity. It summarizes all components that are
required as part of this programming unit for an executable Web Dynpro application.

The Web Dynpro component concept offers a number of advantages:
● Structuring of the programming
● Creation of easily manageable application blocks
● Reusability of whole components
● Decoupling of software projects in both time and space

The Web Dynpro component contains any number of windows  and views and their corresponding controllers . Additional Web Dynpro components can also
be referenced.

The creation of a Web Dynpro component is always mandatory, since the existence of the
Web Dynpro window and the views and controllers that it contains is linked to the existence of
the component itself. Communication between the elements of two Web Dynpro components
and their call by a user is implemented using the component interfaces , so it does
not make sense to consider the individual parts of the component separately.

A Web Dynpro component can embed other Web Dynpro components, and correspondingly a
Web Dynpro component can be embedded in any other Web Dynpro components. This
communication also takes place over the component interfaces.

View

A view describes the layout and behavior of a rectangular area of a user interface.

Every Web Dynpro application has at least one view. The layout of a view is made up of
different user interface elements, which can be nested in each other. The positioning of
interface elements in one view is supported by the supplied layout variants.

In addition to the visible part, the layout, a view also contains a controller and a context. The
data to which the elements of the view can be bound are stored and managed in the view
context, enabling them to be represented or used on the screen. The view controller can
contain methods for data retrieval or for processing user input.

A view also has inbound and outbound plugs  so that views can connected with
each other, or so that a view can be linked with an interface view. These plugs can be linked
with each other using navigation links.

Empty View
The empty view is a special type of view. It is always generated automatically in a window or
a view set area, provided that no view has been embedded manually. It may also be
preferable to embed an empty view in a non-empty window as well. Just like a normal view,
the empty view occupies a certain area of a window at runtime and can be used to hide a
different view, for example, using specific controls.

When you create an empty view, an inbound plug with the default name ShowEmptyView is
created.

Plugs and Navigation Links

Navigation between different views is enabled by plugs. These can be divided into inbound
and outbound plugs. While inbound plugs define the possible starting points of a view, the
outbound plugs of a view can be used to call a subsequent view. Plugs are part of the

controller of a view. They are always assigned to exactly one view.

• Several views are generally embedded in a Web Dynpro window. Therefore, it is
necessary to qualify one view as the view that is displayed first of all when a window is
called. This view is assigned the Default property. The subsequent navigation structure is
then created using this view.
• The entering of a view using an inbound plug always causes an event handler method
 to be called. This is why an event handler method (whose use is optional) is
automatically generated for every inbound plug. In this case, the inbound plug itself
represents the event to be handled.

To navigate from one view to another, each outbound plug from the first view must be linked
with an inbound plug of the second view with the help of a navigation link.

Exactly one navigation link can originate from one outbound plug, although this can lead
to a series of target views. The arrangement of these target views is not qualified, which
means that all target views are controlled at the same time.


Web Dynpro Window

A window is used to combine several Views  and View Sets  (the concept
of view sets is only offered in Web Dynpro for Java). A view can only be displayed by the
browser if it has been embedded in a window. A window always contains one or more views,
which are connected by navigation links . One of these views, or a view set, is

specified as the start view and is displayed the first time the window is called.


Plugs and Window Controller

Windows have inbound and outbound plugs. For more information, refer to Window Plugs.
A window controller is assigned to each Web Dynpro window. The window controller is a
global controller. It is visible by all other controllers within the component.

Interface View

Each window has a uniquely assigned interface view. This interface view represents the
outward view of the window. The interface view is linked with a Web Dynpro application so
that the window can be called using a URL.

Window Plugs

Inbound Plugs and Outbound Plugs
A window has one or several inbound or outbound plugs. Using these plugs, a window can be
included into a navigation chain. The concept of these plugs corresponds to the concept of
the plug for a view . Each plug of a window is visible within the entire window and
can be used for navigating within this window. In addition, one or several plugs can be made
accessible to the component interface so that they are visible even beyond the limits of the

component in question. They thus belong to the interface view of the relevant window.

The Plugs of the Interface View
If an existing plug of a window is added to the component interface, it is then part of the
interface view belonging to this window (see also Interface of a Component).
These interface plugs are required whenever
● A component window is embedded in a window of another component the display at
the screen is to navigate there.
● A Web Dynpro application is to be set so that it can be called.

● A Web Dynpro application is to be exited.

Outbound Plugs
Outbound plugs within a window lead from the window to the inbound plug of a view. Using
these outbound plugs, it is possible to start navigation within the window with different views instead of using a predefined start view. You set the control as to which outbound plug is
called using the event handler method  of the called interface inbound plug.

Inbound Plugs
Inbound plugs within a window lead from the outbound plug of a view to the embedding
window. Just like all other inbound plugs, they represent an event and thus call the event
handler assigned to them. In this way, it is possible to control – within the window controller –
which inner outbound plug is to be called next. In this way, you can dynamically define the
sequence of the views displayed in the window.

Controller

Controllers are the active parts of a Web Dynpro application. They define how the user can
interact with the Web Dynpro application. The data that a controller can access is defined in
the corresponding context . Different instances of controllers and contexts exist
within a Web Dynpro application. In addition to view controllers, which control the behavior of
an individual view, there are also global controllers that offer more general services for all the

views of a component

View Controller
Each view has exactly one view controller, which processes the actions performed by the user in the view.

A view also has exactly one view context, which contains the data required for the view.
A view controller and the corresponding context exist at least as long as the view is displayed
in the browser; if the view is replaced by a subsequent view, the local data is no longer
available. However, the lifetime can also be connected to the lifetime of the surrounding
component.

Global Controllers
Each Web Dynpro component additionally contains at least one global controller that is visible
within the component for all other controllers. Once the data for this component controller
have been created the first time they are accessed, the lifetime extends to cover the whole
period during which the component is in use.
You can add additional global controllers in the form of custom controllers. These also last as
long as the component and the data they contain are available to all views of the component.
Every time there is a Web Dynpro window, a further global controller – the Window controller
– is added to the component.

Interface Controller
Each Web Dynpro component contains exactly one component controller. This controller is a
global controller that is visible also outside the component. It is thus part of the interface of a
Web Dynpro component.

Communication from one controller to the next is achieved by calling methods from a different
controller, or by triggering an event on which other controllers are already registered. You
define these controller uses when you create a controller.

Source Code
Each controller contains program areas in which you can insert your own source code.
Therefore, an Application Programming Interface (API) exists for the processing of context
nodes and their attributes and data. The necessary initialization of nodes can also
be executed using this API. There are further APIs available, for example, the server
abstraction layer for accessing the system environment, and the APIs for message handling
and dynamic programming.
Controllers can contain their own source code in the following areas:
● Event handlers  – these are executed when a view is initialized, ended, or
entered, when a user interface element of a view triggers an action, or when other
controllers trigger a registered event.
● Methods – these can be called by other controllers
● Supply functions – these are executed when necessary to initialize elements in the
context

Context

The data used in the component or in the view are stored in the context. Read-write access to

this data is available using the controllers as a starting point.

The data from the contexts is managed in a hierarchical structure. Each context has a root
node, underneath which the individual data fields (attributes) are stored in a tree structure.
You create this tree structure according to the structure of your application.

Each node contains data fields that represent one of the following:
An individual instance of an object type
A table of instances.

Cardinality of a Context Node
When a node is created in the context of a Web Dynpro component, the cardinality of the
node is specified. The cardinality defines how often a node is to be instantiated at runtime –
that is, how many elements of this node are available at runtime.
● 1…1
Only one element is instantiated.
● 0…1
At runtime, no more than one element is instantiated, but it is also possible that no
element is instantiated.
● 1…n
n elements can be instantiated, but at least one element must be instantiated.
● 0…n
The number of instantiated elements of the context node can vary.


Friday


         SAP was founded in 1972 as System Analysis and Program Development by five former IBM engineers in Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg (Dietmar Hopp, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Plattner, Klaus E. Tschira, and Claus Wellenreuther).
      
          The acronym was later changed to stand for Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung ("Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing").

AG is short for Aktiengesellschaft.

        The name SAP is acronym for Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing (in English) was founded by five former IBM employees in 1972. One year later, the first financial accounting software, forming the basis for the continuous development was get completed, which later on was know as the "R/1 system. Here" "R" stands for real-time data processing. By the end of the decade, SAP R/2 came into world. SAP R/2 was a mainframe like DB/2 based business application software that was very successful in the 1980s and early 1990s. It was particularly popular with large multinational European companies who required soft-real-time business applications, with multi-currency and multi-language capabilities built in.

         SAP is one of the largest software company in the world. Its ranking is after Microsoft, IBM and Oracle in terms of market capitalization. SAP is the largest Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) solution software provider. Sap’s products focus on ERP ( enter prise resource planning ), which it helped to pioneer. The company's main product is SAP R/3;the "R" stands for real time data processing and the number 3 relates to a three-tier application architecture: database, application server and client SAP gui (presentation layer ).Other major product offerings include Advanced Planner and Optimizer (APO),Business Information Warehouse(BW),Customer Relationship Management(CRM),Supplier Relationship Management(SRM), Human Resource Management Systems(HRMS),Product Lifecycle Management(PLM), Exchange Infrastructure(XI) and Knowledge Warehouse(KW).Reportedly, there are over 91,500 SAP installations at more than 28,000 companies as per the statistics of 3 years before. SAP products are used by over 12 million people in more than 120 countries." In this website we trying to collect , arrange different SAP materials for professionals seeking for references. Mainly we are trying to collect ABAP tutorials, BAPI, LSMW, IDOC, ALE, ABAY syntx, NetWeaver, SAP HR, SAP MM, SAP SD, FICO, PP, PM like functional modules, interview questions and answers. latest sap jobs informations also available in the site. users can also contribute their materials or articles for helping other professionals.Its just an online help for the SAP professionals searching for materials, tutorials and PDF study guides, FAQS and jobs

         In 1995, SAP was included in the German stock index DAX. On 22 September 2003, SAP was included in the Dow Jones STOXX 50. In 1991, Prof. Dr. Henning Kagermann joined the board; Dr. Peter Zencke became a board member in 1993. Claus Heinrich, and Gerhard Oswald have been members of the SAP Executive Board since 1996. Two years later, in 1998, the first change at the helm took place. Dietmar Hopp and Klaus Tschira moved to the supervisory board and Dietmar Hopp was appointed Chairman of the supervisory board. Henning Kagermann was appointed as Co-Chairman and CEO of SAP next to Hasso Plattner. Werner Brandt joined SAP in 2001 as a member of the SAP Executive Board and Chief Financial Officer. Léo Apotheker has been a member of the SAP Executive Board and president of Global Customer Solutions & Operations since 2002, was appointed Deputy CEO in 2007, and then became co-CEO alongside Kagermann in 2008.



Facts about SAP
· Founded by five former IBM employees in 1972
· Leading global provider of client/server business software solutions.
· Number one vendor of standard business application software, with a worldwide market share of 31%.
· Fourth-largest independent software supplier in the world.
· Available in 14 languages.
· 34% of SAP's customers worldwide are under $200 million.
· 10 out of the top 10 US companies with the highest market value use SAP software.
· 8 of the top 10 largest US corporations use SAP software.
· 8 of the top 10 highest profit US companies use SAP software.
· More than 7500 customers in over 90 countries have chosen SAP.
· Reported revenues of DM 6 billion in the most recent fiscal year, a 62-percent increase over 1996 revenues

What is R/3?
SAP R/3 a client-server version was officially launched on 6 July 1992 which was manageable on multiple platforms and operating systems, such as Linux, opened up SAP to a whole new customer base.


R/3 comes prepackaged with the core business applications needed by most large corporations. They are designed from the ground up to run using a single database and one (very large) set of tables. Current production database sizes range from 12 gigabytes to near 3 terabytes. Around 8,000 database tables are shipped with the standard delivery R/3 product.

R/3 is an integrated suite of applications designed to handle the data processing for large corporations. It was developed in Germany by the company named SAP (an acronym for Systems Applications and Products for data processing).

What is the Purpose of R/3?


The sole purpose of an R/3 system is to provide a suite of tightly integrated, large-scale business applications.

SAP R/3 is perhaps the best known ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system on the market.
SAP R/3 is a client/server based 3-tiered application.
It has :-
Presentation layer - interfaces with the user
Application layer - Have all the business-specific logic
Database layer - records and stores all the information about the system, including transactional and configuration data
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SAP Application Modules
· FI Financial Accounting-designed for automated management and external reporting of general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other sub-ledger accounts with a user defined chart of accounts. As entries are made relating to sales production and payments journal entries are automatically posted. This connection means that the "books" are designed to reflect the real situation.
· CO Controlling-Represents the company's flow of cost and revenue. It is a management instrument for organizational decisions. It too is automatically updated as events occur.
· AM Asset Management-designed to manage and supervise individual aspects of fixed assets including purchase and sale of assets, depreciation and investment management.
· PS Project System-is designed to support the planning, control and monitoring of long-term, highly complex projects with defined goals.
· WF Workflow-links the integrated SAP application modules with cross-application technologies, tools and services
· IS Industry Solutions-combine the SAP application modules and additional industry-specific functionality. Special techniques have been developed for industries such as banking, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, etc.
· HR Human Resources-is a complete integrated system for supporting the planning and control of personnel activities.
· PM Plant Maintenance-In a complex manufacturing process maintenance means more than sweeping the floors. Equipment must be services and rebuilt. These tasks affect the production plans.
· MM Materials Management-supports the procurement and inventory functions occurring in day-to-day business operations such as purchasing, inventory management, reorder point processing, etc.
· QM Quality Management-is a quality control and information system supporting quality planning, inspection, and control for manufacturing and procurement.
· PP Production Planning-is used to plan and control the manufacturing activities of a company. This module includes; bills of material, routings, work centers, sales and operations planning, master production scheduling, material requirements planning, shop floor control, production orders, product costing, etc.
· SD Sales and Distribution-helps to optimize all the tasks and activities carried out in sales, delivery and billing. Key elements are; pre-sales support, inquiry processing, quotation processing, sales order processing, delivery processing, billing and sales information system

These applications coexist in one homogenous environment.

Module of SAP

Complete SAP Modules:

1. SAP Basis
1. Security (BC - SEC)
2. Application Link Enabling (ALE)
3. Remote Function Calls (RFC)
4. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE)
5. Common Program Interface Communications (CPI-C)
6. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
7. Customizing (BC-CUS)
8. ABAP Programming and Runtime Environment (BC - ABA)
9. Client Server Technology (BC - CST)
10. Network Integration (BC - NET)
11. Basis Services/ Communication Interfaces (BC - SRV)
12. Computing Center Management System (BC - CCM)
13. Upgrade General (BC - UPG)
14. Change and Transport System (BC - CTS)
15. Operating System Platform(BC - OP)
16. Database Interface, database platforms (BC - DB)
17. Front End Services (BC - FES)
18. ABAP Workbench (BC - DWB)
19. Documentation and Translation Tools (BC - DOC)
20. Controls and Control Framework (BC - CI)
21. Business Management (BC - BMT)
22. Middleware (BC - MID)
23. Computer Aided Test Tool (BC - CAT)
24. Ready to Run R/3 (BC - BRR)
25. Authorisations System Monitoring with CCMS Workload Alert Monitor

2. ABAP/4 Programming

1 ABAP Workbench
2 Menu Painter
3 Screen Painter
4 Data Dictionary
5 SAP Script
6 Business Workflow (BC - WF)
7 ALE
8 EDI
9 Business Connector
10 Business Server Pages
11 Internet Application Server
12 Mercator Report Painter
13 ALV reporting
14 Report writer
15 Dialog Programming
16 Repository Information System
17 ABAP 00
18 IDOCS
19 LSMW
20 Smartforms
21 EBP
22 ASAP methodology
23 ABAP Query

3. SAP FI (Financial Accounting)
1. General Ledger Accounting (FI - GL)
2. Special Ledger (FI - SL)
3. Extended Ledger
4. Accounts Payable (FI- AP)
5. Accounts Receivable (FI - AR)
6. Asset Accounting (FI - AA)
7. Bank Accounting
8. Funds Management (FI - FM)
9. Travel Management (FI-TM)
10. Consolidation

4. SAP CO (Controlling)
1. Cost Centre Accounting (CO - CCA)
2. Overhead Cost Controlling (CO - OM)
3. Activity Based Coding (CO - ABC)
4. Product Cost Controlling (CO - PC)
5. Profitability Analysis (CO - PA)
6. Material Ledger (CO - ML)

5. SAP EC (Enterprise Controlling)
1. Consolidation (EC - CS)
2. Executive Information System (EC-EIS)
3. Profit Center Accounting (EC - PCA)
4. Business Planning and Budgeting

6. SAP TR (Treasury)
1. Cash Management (TR - CM)
2. Loans Management (TR - LM)
3. Market Risk Management (TR - MRM)
4. Treasury Management (TR - TM)
5. Funds Management (TR - FM)
6. Information System

7. SAP IM (Investment Management)
1. Investment Programmes
2. Investment Measures (orders/products)
3. Corporation Wide Budgeting
4. Appropriation Requests
5. Automatic Settlement of Fixed Assets
6. Depreciation Forecast
7. Information System

8. SAP HR (Human Resource)
1. Recruitment
2. Personnel Administration
3. Benefits Administration
4. Compensation Management
5. Personnel Development
6. Organizational Management
7. Travel Management
8. Training and Events Management
9. Personnel Planning
10. Time Management
11. Incentive
12. Wages
13. Workflow
14. Payroll
15. Internet Scenarios
16. Information System

9. SAP SD (Sales and Distribution)
1. Master Data
2. Sales
3. Sales Support
4. Sales Information System
5. Billing
6. Special Business Transactions
7. Shipping
8. Transportation
9. Credit Control
10. QM in SD
11. Internet
12. Foreign Trade
13. Electronic Data Interchange

10. SAP Logistics Information System
1. Purchasing Information System
2. Sales Information System
3. Inventory Controlling
4. Retail Information System
5. Production Planning and Control Information System
6. Plant Maintenance Information System
7. Project Information System

11. SAP MM (Materials Management)
1. Purchasing
2. Invoice Verification
3. Logistics (General)
4. Logistics Information System
5. Inventory Management
6. Inventory / Valuations
7. Materials Planning
8. Workflow
9. External Services Management
10. QM in MM
11. Warehouse Management

12. SAP PM (Plant Maintenance)
1. Preventative Maintenance
2. Maintenance Order Management
3. Maintenance Projects
4. Service Management
5. Maintenance Planning
6. Equipment and Technical Objects
7. Structuring Technical Systems
8. PM Processing
9. Work Clearance Management
10. Internet Scenarios
11. Customising
12. Information System

13. SAP PP (Production Planning)
1. Make to Order (CR)
2. Make to Order (PIR)
3. Repetitive Manufacturing
4. PP for Process Industries (PP - PI)
5. PP - Processes
6. Sales and Operations Planning
7. Capacity requirements
8. Master Planning
9. KANBAN
10. Production Orders
11. Product Cost Planning
12. Plant Data Collection
13. Assembly Orders
14. Information System

14. SAP QM - Quality Management
1. Planning
2. Inspections
3. Notifications
4. Control
5. Certificates
6. Test Equipment Management
7. QM-IS

15. SAP BW (Business Warehousing)
1. Data Warehousing
2. BI Suite - Business Explorer
3. BI Platform
4. ODS Structures
5. Development Technologies
6. Info Cube
7. Design Build

16. SAP CS (Customer Service)
1. Service Processing
2. Controlling
3. Service Contracts
4. Workflow in Customer Service

17. SAP SMB
1. SAP SMB

18. SAP CA (Cross Application Components)
1. SAP Business Workflow
2. Application Link Enabling (ALE)

19. SAP PS (Project Systems)
1. Basic Data
2. Operational Structures
3. Project Planning
4. Approval
5. Information System
6. Project Execution and Integration
7. Work Breakdown Structure

20. mySAP SRM (Supplier Relationship Management)
1. Self Service Procurement
2. Service Procurement
3. Plan Driven Procurement
4. Spend Analysis
5. Strategic Sourcing
6. Catalogue Content Management

21. mySAP SEM
1. Business Consolidation (SEM-BCS)
2. Business Information Collection (SEM-BIC)
3. Business Planning and Simulation (BW-BPS)
4. Corporate Performance Monitor (SEM-CPM)
5. Stakeholder Relationship Management (SEM-SRM)

22. mySAP CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
1. CRM Enterprise
2. Field Applications
3. Interaction Center
4. E-Commerce
5. Channel Management
6. Industry Specific CRM

23. mySAP Product Life Cycle Management
1. Document Management
2. Engineering Change Management
3. Enterprise Content Management
4. Classification
5. Basic Data for Process Manufacturing

24. SAP SCM (SAP Supply Chain Management)
1. SCM Process and Business Scenarios
2. SAP Forecasting and Replenishment
3. SAP Advance Planning and Optimization (SAP - APO)
4. SAP Inventory Collaboration Hub (SAP - OCH)
5. SAP Event Management (SAP - EM)
6. SCM Basis

25. SAP Netweaver
1. SAP Masterdata Management
2. Information Integration
3. Portal Content
4. Process Integration
5. Knowledge Management
6. Life Cycle Management
7. SAP Business Intelligence
8. SAP Visual Composer
9. People Integration
10. Application Platform
11. SAP Web Application Server
12. SAP Business Information Warehouse
13. SAP Solution Manager
14. SAP Enterprise Portal
15. SAP Mobile Engine
16. Security

26. SAP IS (Industry Solutions) / SAP for Industries
1. Aerospace & Defence
2. Consumer Products
3. Defence & Security
4. Retail
5. Insurance
6. Mill Products
7. Higher Education & Research
8. Industrial Machinery & Components
9. Logistics Service Providers
10. Automotive
11. Chemicals
12. Pharmaceuticals
13. Banking
14. Telecoms
15. Life Sciences
16. Mining
17. Public Sector
18. Service Provider
19. Media
20. Healthcare
21. Oil & Gas
22. Utilities
23. Postal Services

How To Identify Table in SAP

Particular Starts with Example
Vendor L LFA1
Customer K KNA1, KONV
Sales V- VBAK, VBAP
Bank B - BKNF, BKPF
Purchasing E - EKKO, EKPO
Material M -  MARA, MAKT, MARC
Master -T -  T001, T001W


Particular Header Table - contains Example Item Table - contains Example
Sales,
Delivery,
Billing,
Purchasing … K- like VBAK, LIKP, VBRK, EKKO P VBAP, LIPS, VBRP, EKKO

Finance Tables:
Contains Meaning Example
I Open Item BSID
A Closed Item BSAD


Ends Meaning Example
S G/L Master Open Item BSIS, BSAS
D Customer related BSID
K Vendor related BSIK

Wednesday

Diff. TABIX & INDEX

SY-TABIX means Table Index. This signifies the number of table index. Each row of a table has certain index or counter. The value of sy-tabix for the last entry would be equivalent to number of table entries.

SY-INDEX means the number of Iterations for a loop. bascially DO - ENDO .
SY-INDEX is not equal to SY-TABIX. 

Saturday

WORKFLOW

SAP Workflow

SAP workflow is a tool to automate complex business processes where there is more than one user involved. sap workflow maps the position in organization because sap believes that positions are more stable than the people.

SAP workflow is a process tool that is designed to facilitate and automate business processes involving the tasks sequence performed by the users (people in the workplace) and ensure that the right work is assigned in the right sequence at the right time to the right person in the workflow. the sap workflow can be linked to other software tools such as microsoft outlook or lotus notes. using sap workflow, each step of a business transaction can be easily monitored throughout the initiation and completion of the business processes. the sap workflow enables the process owners to track deadlines, determine the workload as well as provide statistics on the length of time to complete work processes.

The key components of the sap workflow include the workflow definition, work items, events triggers and the organizational structure in the workplace.

Why use sap workflow?

SAP Workflow ensures " the right work is brought in the right sequence at the right time to the right people". It is a tool designed to facilitate and automate business processes that require tasks to be performed by people. Ideal for casual or non-SAP users, since all the work items can be performed outside of SAP by simply responding to an email, SAP workflow can be linked to Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Notes. Each step of a business transaction can be easily monitored and processes are completed from the beginning to the end. Workflow allows process owners to keep an eye on deadlines, provides statistics on the length of time to complete work processes, determine the workload with regard to individual employees and save processing time.


Since Workflow delivers work items to employees automatically via email, they do not have to wait or inquire about the status of a particular transaction. SAP Business Workflow can also be used to respond to errors and exceptions - it can start when predefined events occur. For example, an event can be triggered if particular errors are found during an automatic check of the data SAP workflow is particularly useful when there is a business process involving more than one person, when an automatic notification can replace a manual communication and when there is a defined set of individuals and/or documents implicated. It organizes one's work, alerts users and directs traffic by sending work items - once the user executes the work item, then another one can be sent to another user. For example, a Manager could use workflow to approve a vacation request from an employee. The workflow application would ensure that each person involved uses the correct online form and successfully completes their step before the planned leave was entered into SAP - either by an Administrator or automatically. By the same token, if someone registers for a training class, Workflow can act as an alert tool by notifying the supervisor in question or reminding the individual of an upcoming class.


Since Workflow delivers work items to employees automatically via email, they do not have to wait or inquire about the status of a particular transaction. SAP Business Workflow can also be used to respond to errors and exceptions - it can start when predefined events occur. For example, an event can be triggered if particular errors are found during an automatic check of the data SAP workflow is particularly useful when there is a business process involving more than one person, when an automatic notification can replace a manual communication and when there is a defined set of individuals and/or documents implicated. It organizes one's work, alerts users and directs traffic by sending work items - once the user executes the work item, then another one can be sent to another user. For example, a Manager could use workflow to approve a vacation request from an employee. The workflow application would ensure that each person involved uses the correct online form and successfully completes their step before the planned leave was entered into SAP - either by an Administrator or automatically. By the same token, if someone registers for a training class, Workflow can act as an alert tool by notifying the supervisor in question or reminding the individual of an upcoming class.

Since Workflow delivers work items to employees automatically via email, they do not have to wait or inquire about the status of a particular transaction. SAP Business Workflow can also be used to respond to errors and exceptions - it can start when predefined events occur. For example, an event can be triggered if particular errors are found during an automatic check of the data SAP workflow is particularly useful when there is a business process involving more than one person, when an automatic notification can replace a manual communication and when there is a defined set of individuals and/or documents implicated. It organizes one's work, alerts users and directs traffic by sending work items - once the user executes the work item, then another one can be sent to another user. For example, a Manager could use workflow to approve a vacation request from an employee. The workflow application would ensure that each person involved uses the correct online form and successfully completes their step before the planned leave was entered into SAP - either by an Administrator or automatically. By the same token, if someone registers for a training class, Workflow can act as an alert tool by notifying the supervisor in question or reminding the individual of an upcoming class.

Since Workflow delivers work items to employees automatically via email, they do not have to wait or inquire about the status of a particular transaction. SAP Business Workflow can also be used to respond to errors and exceptions - it can start when predefined events occur. For example, an event can be triggered if particular errors are found during an automatic check of the data SAP workflow is particularly useful when there is a business process involving more than one person, when an automatic notification can replace a manual communication and when there is a defined set of individuals and/or documents implicated. It organizes one's work, alerts users and directs traffic by sending work items - once the user executes the work item, then another one can be sent to another user. For example, a Manager could use workflow to approve a vacation request from an employee. The workflow application would ensure that each person involved uses the correct online form and successfully completes their step before the planned leave was entered into SAP - either by an Administrator or automatically. By the same token, if someone registers for a training class, Workflow can act as an alert tool by notifying the supervisor in question or reminding the individual of an upcoming class.
Before implementing SAP Business Workflow, organizations should start by asking a series of questions, such as: - Which HR processes do we want to automate? - To what extent can we change current procedures and pass them over to electronic control? - What steps are these procedures made up of? - Who are the individuals involved and what are their roles? - How do we get the Workitem to go to the right people?

Before implementing SAP Business Workflow, organizations should start by asking a series of questions, such as: - Which HR processes do we want to automate? - To what extent can we change current procedures and pass them over to electronic control? - What steps are these procedures made up of? - Who are the individuals involved and what are their roles? - How do we get the Workitem to go to the right people?
Even though Workflow can be implemented via user-defined tables without the Organizational Management component in place, having a pre-defined organizational structure adds tremendous value and saves time. A clear reporting structure made up of positions and position holders that is maintained by the HR department, ensures the ongoing ease-of-maintenance effort. The ability of HR personnel to add and delete users from positions as people come and go, without affecting your core workflows, is a tremendous long-term benefit. If you have Personnel Administration in place, employee's email addresses can also be maintained by the HR department in addition to employee's respective Time/HR and Payroll administrators who might be involved in the Workflow.
There are basically three options for connecting workflow to external email: Microsoft Outlook/Exchange, Lotus Notes or SAP Connect and Internet Mail. A key factor in SAP R/3 4.6 implementations and upgrades will be the use of a Web browser as the main workflow interface.
Although the advantages gained by using workflow are not of financial nature, the time saved by optimizing processes could easily be translated into money. - The quality of your processes will be assured by sending relevant information directly to the user. Managers don't have the time to search for information. For example if an employee obtains a qualification as a result of hard work or training, their Managers can be notified immediately. - Cycle time is reduced by providing all the necessary information needed: people can check their list of pending tasks and determine which tasks can be completed the next day without any negative impact. I.e. A Payroll Administrator might be notified immediately of an employee address change via ESS that might implicate taxes. - Workflow allows to monitor deadlines.
It could be used to remind employees of upcoming performance reviews or training or to send payroll year-end tasks items to the relevant Payroll Administrators. Deadline handing ensures that users perform the tasks within the time planned. Escalation measures ensure that the failure to meet a deadline can be corrected by other means. - Users can see at a glance how the process works and who will be selected to perform the different tasks, which creates a transparent work environment. - SAP contains Workflow templates, which can be used as a reference providing more than 200 Workflow samples. - Implementing Workflow will save costs. Ask yourself how much time is spent gathering information, getting hold of people, logging into different systems and trying to understand who to give a task to? How often does this current process fail and how labor intensive is it to fix it? Workflow reduces time and effort spent and the savings in days can be considerable.


How does it work?

There are several components of a workflow: Workflow Definition, Work Items, Triggering Events and at the Receiving end the Organizational Structure. The workflow definition is created in the Workflow builder and is made up of the various steps. Each step of the workflow definition can be a task pointing to a SAP transaction or a decision. A decision might contain specifications about agents and deadline monitoring for a step. The workflow is started either manually or by the system at runtime. For the system to start a workflow, the workflow definition must contain a triggering event (for example the event "Address update by the employee"). When the event occurs, the relevant workflow is started automatically. Tasks or Work items describe the activities involved and can refer to automatically executable methods (i.e. send an email to a supervisor) or they might need a user to execute them (i.e. supervisor has to go and click on a button in his workplace to approve something). Tasks refer to business objects, which are ABAP coding. Events are activities that trigger the workflow - one or several workflows at the time. Once the workflow is triggered, the definition flowchart determines when and in what order work happens. Work items are then received and executed in MS Outlook, Lotus Notes, mySAP Workflow MiniApp or the SAP integrated inbox. Alternatively, the workflow system can transmit e-mail notifications directly to any mail system, informing the user of the need to log in to the SAP system to execute the task. A work item is always assigned to one or more users. Once the task is executed, the work item vanishes from the other users' inboxes.

There are several components of a workflow: Workflow Definition, Work Items, Triggering Events and at the Receiving end the Organizational Structure. The workflow definition is created in the Workflow builder and is made up of the various steps. Each step of the workflow definition can be a task pointing to a SAP transaction or a decision. A decision might contain specifications about agents and deadline monitoring for a step. The workflow is started either manually or by the system at runtime. For the system to start a workflow, the workflow definition must contain a triggering event (for example the event "Address update by the employee"). When the event occurs, the relevant workflow is started automatically. Tasks or Work items describe the activities involved and can refer to automatically executable methods (i.e. send an email to a supervisor) or they might need a user to execute them (i.e. supervisor has to go and click on a button in his workplace to approve something). Tasks refer to business objects, which are ABAP coding. Events are activities that trigger the workflow - one or several workflows at the time. Once the workflow is triggered, the definition flowchart determines when and in what order work happens. Work items are then received and executed in MS Outlook, Lotus Notes, mySAP Workflow MiniApp or the SAP integrated inbox. Alternatively, the workflow system can transmit e-mail notifications directly to any mail system, informing the user of the need to log in to the SAP system to execute the task. A work item is always assigned to one or more users. Once the task is executed, the work item vanishes from the other users' inboxes.


There are several components of a workflow: Workflow Definition, Work Items, Triggering Events and at the Receiving end the Organizational Structure. The workflow definition is created in the Workflow builder and is made up of the various steps. Each step of the workflow definition can be a task pointing to a SAP transaction or a decision. A decision might contain specifications about agents and deadline monitoring for a step. The workflow is started either manually or by the system at runtime. For the system to start a workflow, the workflow definition must contain a triggering event (for example the event "Address update by the employee"). When the event occurs, the relevant workflow is started automatically. Tasks or Work items describe the activities involved and can refer to automatically executable methods (i.e. send an email to a supervisor) or they might need a user to execute them (i.e. supervisor has to go and click on a button in his workplace to approve something). Tasks refer to business objects, which are ABAP coding. Events are activities that trigger the workflow - one or several workflows at the time. Once the workflow is triggered, the definition flowchart determines when and in what order work happens. Work items are then received and executed in MS Outlook, Lotus Notes, mySAP Workflow MiniApp or the SAP integrated inbox. Alternatively, the workflow system can transmit e-mail notifications directly to any mail system, informing the user of the need to log in to the SAP system to execute the task. A work item is always assigned to one or more users. Once the task is executed, the work item vanishes from the other users' inboxes.

There are several components of a workflow: Workflow Definition, Work Items, Triggering Events and at the Receiving end the Organizational Structure. The workflow definition is created in the Workflow builder and is made up of the various steps. Each step of the workflow definition can be a task pointing to a SAP transaction or a decision. A decision might contain specifications about agents and deadline monitoring for a step. The workflow is started either manually or by the system at runtime. For the system to start a workflow, the workflow definition must contain a triggering event (for example the event "Address update by the employee"). When the event occurs, the relevant workflow is started automatically. Tasks or Work items describe the activities involved and can refer to automatically executable methods (i.e. send an email to a supervisor) or they might need a user to execute them (i.e. supervisor has to go and click on a button in his workplace to approve something). Tasks refer to business objects, which are ABAP coding. Events are activities that trigger the workflow - one or several workflows at the time. Once the workflow is triggered, the definition flowchart determines when and in what order work happens. Work items are then received and executed in MS Outlook, Lotus Notes, mySAP Workflow MiniApp or the SAP integrated inbox. Alternatively, the workflow system can transmit e-mail notifications directly to any mail system, informing the user of the need to log in to the SAP system to execute the task. A work item is always assigned to one or more users. Once the task is executed, the work item vanishes from the other users' inboxes.

There are several components of a workflow: Workflow Definition, Work Items, Triggering Events and at the Receiving end the Organizational Structure. The workflow definition is created in the Workflow builder and is made up of the various steps. Each step of the workflow definition can be a task pointing to a SAP transaction or a decision. A decision might contain specifications about agents and deadline monitoring for a step. The workflow is started either manually or by the system at runtime. For the system to start a workflow, the workflow definition must contain a triggering event (for example the event "Address update by the employee"). When the event occurs, the relevant workflow is started automatically. Tasks or Work items describe the activities involved and can refer to automatically executable methods (i.e. send an email to a supervisor) or they might need a user to execute them (i.e. supervisor has to go and click on a button in his workplace to approve something). Tasks refer to business objects, which are ABAP coding. Events are activities that trigger the workflow - one or several workflows at the time. Once the workflow is triggered, the definition flowchart determines when and in what order work happens. Work items are then received and executed in MS Outlook, Lotus Notes, mySAP Workflow MiniApp or the SAP integrated inbox. Alternatively, the workflow system can transmit e-mail notifications directly to any mail system, informing the user of the need to log in to the SAP system to execute the task. A work item is always assigned to one or more users. Once the task is executed, the work item vanishes from the other users' inboxes.
Integration to Email systems
Usually executable work items are received in the Workflow inbox. But casual SAP users, especially Managers might forget to check their inbox at a regular basis and so it makes sense to set up reminder emails, informing people via a batch job that they have work items in their inbox. Alternatively, an email can be sent directly to their Lotus Notes / Outlook account with a hotlink to the Workflow inbox. All emails, whether they exists in the form of Workflow notifications, Workflow Workitems, or just a standard SAP Office memo, are sent out of SAP through SAPConnect. This provides the all in one gateway between SAP and the mail server. The transport of workflow items between SAPConnect and the mail server (whether that's Lotus Notes or Microsoft Outlook) has been facilitated by SAP provided add-ons that are fully optimized for the different protocols required for each server. Lotus Notes, for example, uses a 'pipe' called the MTA, or Message Transfer Agent. This was designed jointly between SAP and Lotus to provide full integration between the two systems.
It should be noted that the type of transport medium used is dependent on the mail server and not the mail client. In other words, if the employee uses Outlook on their computer but the mail server is a Lotus Domino server, the MTA would be the mail gateway used. Each workflow background user must have an email address stored in their user profile. It is note worthy that no approval or reply notification will be allowed from an external mail system - in other words external email systems cannot respond back to SAP for security reasons.
Workflow is becoming more and more web-oriented which allows external business partners to receive notifications. Companies can adopt Workflow together with "Webflow" where workflows can be initiated via Internet transactions and where different external business partners can receive notifications sent by the workflow. The Web inbox offers access to partner companies logging on to your Web portal and it refreshes itself automatically. Any type of work item can be executed directly from a centralized list of work items, no matter what graphical user interface is needed to run it. Webflow is particularly useful when a company deals with outside partners using different software platforms.

Benefits of SAP Workflow

Workflows can make an ERP system more efficient by automating situations in which work processes have to be run through repeatedly, or situations in which the business process requires the involvement of a large number of agents in a specific sequence. It is essential that the Workflow consultant is an expert in ABAP development or has access to ABAP programmers since a good deal of the work is technical. You will also need someone familiar with Lotus Notes / Outlook concepts and development in order to create the interfaces between the systems. The Workflow consultant should also have experience in installing and integrating efficient electronic archive systems.

Tuesday

Badi and User Exits

Badi ...

Business Add-Ins are a new SAP enhancement technique based on ABAP Objects. They can be inserted into the SAP System to accommodate user requirements too specific to be included in the standard delivery. Since specific industries often require special functions, SAP allows you to predefine these points in your software.

As with customer exits two different views are available:
  • In the definition view, an application programmer predefines exit points in a source that allow specific industry sectors, partners, and customers to attach additional software to standard SAP source code without having to modify the original object.
  • In the implementation view, the users of Business Add-Ins can customize the logic they need or use a standard logic if one is available.
In contrast to customer exits, Business Add-Ins no longer assume a two-level infrastructure (SAP and customer solutions), but instead allow for a multi-level system landscape (SAP, partner, and customer solutions, as well as country versions, industry solutions, and the like). Definitions and implementations of Business Add-Ins can be created at each level within such a system infrastructure.

For More Details: Click Here


User Exits :

SAP creates user exits for specific programs, screens, and menus within standard R/3 applications. These exits do not contain any functionality. Instead, the customer exits act as hooks. You can hang your own add-on functionality onto these hooks.
Types of Exits
There are several different types of user exits. Each of these exits acts as hooks where you can attach or "hang" your own add-ons.

Menu Exits
Menu exits add items to the pulldown menus in standard SAP applications. You can use these menu items to call up your own screens or to trigger entire add-on applications.

SAP creates menu exits by defining special menu items in the Menu Painter. These special entries have function codes that begin with "+" (a plus sign). You specify the menu item’s text when activating the item in an add-on project.
Screen Exits
Screen exits add fields to screens in R/3 applications. SAP creates screen exits by placing special subscreen areas on a standard R/3 screen and calling a customer subscreen from the standard screen’s flow logic.

Function Module Exits
Function module exits add functions to R/3 applications. Function module exits play a role in both menu and screen exits.

When you add a new menu item to a standard pull down menu, you use a function module exit to define the actions that should take place once your menu is activated.
Function module exits also control the data flow between standard programs and screen exit fields. SAP application developers create function module exits by writing calls to customer functions into the source code of standard R/3 programs.
Click Here

Followers

DISCLAIMER

All about contents or data or information taken from sap.com or other sap related web sites which are available on the Internet for this BLOG.
If you find any doubts or mistakes please refer the other SAP/ABAP related sites .